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川北地区晚熟柑橘栽培技术

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川北地区晚熟柑橘栽培技术

发布日期:2019-12-17 作者: 点击:

XICHONGXIANDICHUNANCHONGSHIXINANBU, WEIYUSICHUANSHENGZHONGPIANBEIBU, SHINANCHONGSHIDESHENGTAIHOUHUAYUANHEWEIXINGCHENG, DICHUYAREDAISHIRUNJIFENGQIHOUDAI, QIANQIUDIMAO, NIANPINGJUNQIWEN17.2℃, NIANRIZHAOSHISHU1 400 hYISHANG, NIANJIANGYULIANG980 mm, PINGJUNHAIBA361 m, WUSHUANGQI300 dYISHANG, SIJIFENMING, QIHOUWENHE, SHIGANJUSHIYIZHONGZHIQU。JINNIANLAI, XICHONGXIANLIYONGYOULIDEQIHOUTIAOJIAN (NIANJUNWEN>17℃, DONGJIJIDUANZUIDIWEN≥-3℃, WUJIANYIXINGBINGCHONGHAI, RIZHAOSHISHUGAOYUCHUANYUDADUOSHUGANJUCHANQU) , JIEHEDANGDILIANGHAODEPINPAIYOUSHI, DALIGAILIANGGANJUSHENGCHANJIEGOU, FAZHANYOUZHIWANSHUGANJU5 300 hm2。WEILESHIXINJIANGANJUYUANZAOJIEYOUZHIFENGCHAN, ZONGJIEQIPEITAOZAIPEIJISHU, YIGONGGUANGDAGUONONGXUEXICANKAO。

沃柑柑橘幼苗

1 高标准建园

1.1 园地规划

XINJIANWANSHUGANJUGUOYUANPODUYI15°YIXIAWEIHAO, ZUIGAOPODUBUCHAOGUO25°, YINGYUANLIWURANYUAN。MIANJIJIAODADEXINJIANGUOYUAN, YINGANDIXINGHUAFENWEIZUOYEXIAOQU, YI2.0~3.3 hm2WEIYI, YINGGUIHUAHAODAOLUXITONG (ZHUGANDAO、ZHILU、RENXINGDAO、TIMIANBIANDAOJISHUILUYUNSHUSHESHIDENG) 、GUANPAIQUDAO、FANGHULIN、GONGZUOFANG、SHENGCHANZILIAOFANG、FEILIAOJINONGYAOPEIZHICAOZUOJIAN、CHANPINZHANSHITING、BANGONGJIEDAISHIDENG。ZAIZHIXINGXIANGYINANBEIXIANGWEIYI, YILIYUCHONGFENLIYONGTAIYANGGUANG。

1.2 土壤改造

采用以下几种方式进行改土:全园深翻、聚土起垄 (垄高50~60 cm, 垄沟宽2.0~2.5 m, 垄基宽2.0~2.5 m, 垄体做成梯形, 垄面比垄基略小20~30 cm为宜) , 坡改梯地再聚土起垄 (坡度≥20°的坡地, 深沟宽厢, 鱼鳞坑改土) , 挖规格为100 cm×80 cm×80 cm的定植穴或定植沟。每个定植穴内施商品有机肥10~20 kg (或杂草、绿肥、秸秆30 kg) 、磷肥1 kg、油枯1 kg, 与土壤混合均匀, 柑橘苗巴登彩票开户木根系地布隔离20 cm以上。

1.3 品种与砧木选择

川北地区有效积温在5 100~5 400℃之间, 积温略偏低, 宜选择抗寒及抗逆性强的晚熟柑橘品种, 如春见、大雅、沃柑、清见、W·默科特、美国糖桔、金秋砂糖桔等杂柑, 如管理水平高, 也可以种植不知火杂柑, 甜橙类首选特晚熟8号血橙 (4—6月成熟) , 其次可选塔罗科血橙新系 (1—2月成熟) , 也可选择红肉脐橙 (卡拉卡拉, 1—2月成熟) 、晚脐橙 (西班牙产, 又名纳佛莱特脐橙, 2—4月成熟) , 以及柚类的矮晚柚 (1—3月成熟) 。晚熟柑橘新品种近年来更新换代极快, 如无 (少) 核沃柑、早熟砂糖桔 (金葵) 、爱媛系列等品种, 有的货架期很短, 有的产量低、抗性差、不耐冻, 有的带有多种弱病毒, 需谨慎引种发展。砧木以资阳 (软枝) 香橙为宜, 其长势强, 耐盐碱地, 枝叶不易黄化, 缺铁、缺锌症状轻;其次为红桔、枳橙砧。枳壳不太适应西充县紫色碱性土壤, 晚熟柚可以选择柚共砧或枳柚、枳壳作砧木。

1.4 幼苗定植

巴登彩票开户TAOTAILUDILUOGENMIAO, QUANBUTUIGUANGSHIYONGJINGGUOTUODUCHULIDERONGQIMIAOHUOYINGYANGDAIZHUANGMIAO、YINGYANGBEIMIAO。

巴登彩票开户YINGYANGMIAOYINIANZHONGCHUZUILENGHEZUIRESHIDUANWAIJUNKEDINGZHI, DANYICHUNJI2—3YUE、CHUXIA5—6YUE、QIUJI9—10YUEXIAOGUOZUIHAO。TUIJIANDINGZHIZHUXINGJUWEI2.5~3.5 m×3.5~5.0 m, YOULEIZHUXINGJUYI4 m×5 mWEIYI。GUANLISHUIPINGHAODEGUOYUANYEKECAIQUXIANMIHOUXIDEJIHUAMIZHIFANGSHI, DANMIANJIBUYIGUODA, FOUZEGUANLINANDUJIADA, JIXIEZUOYEKUNNAN, LAODONGLIDENGCHENGBENZENGJIA。

DINGZHISHIJIANGYINGYANGMIAOFANGRU1/3DEDINGZHIXUEZHONG, SHIYINGYANGTUCHUIZHIXIANGXIA, BAOZHENGGENXISHUZHAN, FUZHENGMIAOMU, QINGQINGTASHI, SHIYOUMIAOGENXIYUTURANGMIJIE, MIAOMUJIAJIEKOUYINGGAOYUDIMIAN15~25 cm, BAOZHENGGUANSHUITASHIHOU, MIAOMUBUXIAXIAN, YILIYUSHENGZHANGFAYULIANGHAO, BUGANRANJIAOFUBING、LIUJIAOBING, BINGJIANSHAOTIANNIU、JIDINGCHONGDEWEIHAI。

1.5 定植后管理

DINGZHIHOUGUANZUDINGGENSHUI, YINGXIANGUANSHENGGENJIJISHAJUNJI, GAOHAOPINGHENGXIUJIAN, YIBUCHAOGUO50 cmWEIYI, GUOGAOMIAOMUYINGFULIZHIJIA, PEN2~5CIGENWAIZHUIFEI (KEXIANYONG0.3%NIAOSU+0.3%LINSUANERQINGJIA+YINGYANGYE) , DIMIANFUGAIGUQIAO、MAIJIE、ZACAO、LSDIBU、HEISEHUOBAISEBOMO。XINZAIYOUSHUQIAN1~3NIANDEGUANJIANGUANLIJISHUWEIDI1NIANJINGXIGUANLI, LIBAOCHENGHUO, WANSHANGENXI, CUFAXIAQIUSHAO;DI2NIANYOUSHUKUODASHUGUAN, LIYONGCHENG、LA、DIAODENGFANGFAKAIZHANGJIAODU, CUFACHUN、XIA、QIUSHAO, SHIDANGCUHUA;DI3NIANJIXUKUODASHUGUAN, JINKUAIWANCHENGYINGYANGSHENGZHANGXIANGSHENGZHISHENGZHANGZHUANHUA, LIZHENGZAOJIE、YOUZHI、FENGCHAN。

2 土肥水管理

2.1 土壤管理

巴登彩票开户SHENFANGAITU, YIQIUJI10YUESHANGXUNZHI11YUESHANGXUNWEIYI, BINGJIEHESHIJIFEI。CAIYONGMEINIANHUOGENIANCONGYUANLAIDINGZHIXUEXIANGWAIKUOXUE, FANYUANSHENDUWEI30~40 cm, WAKUAN30 cmDEHUANZHUANGGOU, JIANGTURANGYUFUSHUJIACHUFEN、TUZAFEI、BINGFEI、LVFEIDENGHUNYUNTIANMAI, YILIYUSHUHUATURANG, ZENGJIATURANGYOUJIZHIHANLIANG, TIGAOFEILI。SHUPANPEITUHEKETU, QIULINGSHANDIGUOYUANPEITUHEKETUNENGZENGHOUTUCENG, GAILIANGTURANGJIEGOU, BAOHUGENXI, PEIFEITURANG。DIMIANFUGAIYIHANJIHUOHANLENGJIJIEWEIYI, JIUDIQUCAI, ZHONGZHIDOUKELVFEI, RUFEITIANLUOBU、HEIMAICAO、SUMA、ZISUDENG, YUSHENGHUAQIANQIFANMAIGAITU。JIANZUOWUBUNENGZHONGZHIGAOGANPATENGZUOWU, YIAISHENGSHUCAI、ZHONGYAOCAI、DOULEIWEIYI, YEKERENGONGSHENGCAO。ZACAODEQINGCHUKEXUANYONGJIXIE、RENGONGDENGFANGSHI, ZHICHUQUEXINGZACAO, BAOLIUSUSHENG、AIGANYINIANSHENGCAO。CHUCAOJITUIJIANSHIYONGCAOANLIN (NEIXIXINGRUO, BUYISUNSHANGJUNGEN, DUXINGJIAOXIAO, CANLIUDI) , QUANNIANSHIYONG1~2CI。XICHONGXIANTURANGDADUOSHUWEIZISEYEYANCHENGTUMUZHIFAYUDEZISETU, p HZHIYIBANDAYU7, PIANJIANXING, KECAIQUSHIYONGSHENGLISUANXINGFEILIAO、LIUHUANGFEN、ZENGSHIYOUJIFEIDENGFANGFAJIANGDITURANGp HZHI。

2.2 施肥技术

2.2.1 土壤施肥。

巴登彩票开户XINZAIYOUSHUXINSHAOSHENGZHANGDAO3~5 cmXINGENZHENGSHISHENGZHANGFAYUHOUCAINENGJINXINGTURANGSHIFEI, QIAN1~2NIANZAIXINSHAOCHOUSHENGQIANHOU10 dZUOYOUSHIXINGTURANGSHIFEI6~8CI, YINIAOSUHEGAODANFUHEFEIWEIZHU, ZUODAOQINSHI、BOSHI、QIAOSHI, QIUSHAOTINGZHANGHOUDE9—10YUEKEJIEHEFANYUANSHIRUFUSHUYOUJIFEI、BINGFEI, JIASHILIANGFUHEFEI, SUIZHESHULINGZENGDA, SHIFEICISHUJIANSHAO, FEILIAOYONGLIANGJISHIRUSHENDU、KUANDUJIADA, LIN、JIAFEIBILIYEYAOJIADA。SHENGZHANGJIZHUIFEICAIYONGSUISHUIJIAOGUANWEIYI, JIFEICAIYONGHUANZHUANGGOUSHI、XUESHI、TIAOGOUSHIJUNKE。

2.2.2 根外追肥。

巴登彩票开户ZAIHOUDI1NIAN3—10YUE, ZUODAOMEIYUEPENSHI1CI (KEJIEHEPENYAO) NIAOSU+LINSUANERQINGJIAHUOQITAQUANYINGYANGYEMIANFEI, YIDINGYAOXUANZEHEGEDEYEMIANFEI, BINGQIEGAOWEN、HANLENGTIANQIJIYUTIANBUPENSHI, ZHUYINONGDUBUYIGUODA, ZHONGLEIBUYIGUODUO, YIMIANCHANSHENGFUZUOYONG。

2.3 水分管理

GANHANJIJIEJIXUSHUIMINGANQI (MENGYAQI、CHOUSHAOQI、ZUOGUOQI、GUOSHIPENGDAQI) YAOJISHIGUANSHUI。YUJIYAOJISHIPAISHUI, FANGZHIGENXIWUYANGHUXIJICHANSHENGSHIHAI;ZAIKAIHUAQI、GUOSHICHENGSHUQI、HUAYAFENHUAQIYAOKONGSHUI, BAOCHITURANGSHIDUGANHAN。

3 幼树整形修剪

巴登彩票开户SHIYIWANSHUGANJUDESHUXINGZHUYAOYOUBIANZEZHUGANXING、ZIRANKAIXINXING、DUOZHUZHIFANGSHEXING、GAOGANPICHUIXINGDENG。YOUSHUQIAN4NIANTUIGUANGMIANJIANJISHU, ZHIJIANQUJIZHENMENGNIE, YIBANBUSHUSHAOJIJIANZHI, CAIYONGCHENG、LA、DIAODENGLAKAIZHIGANJIAODU, YANHUANSHENGZHANGSHI, SHENGZHANGSHIDIAOJIEDUOCAIYONGZHAIXIN、JIANDING、NIUSHAO、NAZHIDENGFANGFA, PEIHESHIYONGYINGYANGYEJISHENGZHANGYANHUANJI, RUXIXIAOZUO、DUOXIAOZUODENG, ZHENGSHIGUAGUOHOUZAITUIGUANGDAZHIXIUJIANJISHU (KAITIANCHUANG、DACEMEN、QUQUNZHI) 。

4 花果调控管理

4.1 拉花捉花

巴登彩票开户ZAIHOUDI1NIANJIAJIESUITIAOYILAOSHU, YINIANNENGKAIHUA, BINGZUOSHAOLIANGGUO, YAOQUANBUSHUCHU, YIMIANXIAOHAOYOUSHUYINGYANG, YINGXIANGSHENGZHANGFAYU。YOUSHUKECAIYONGKONGSHUIKONGDAN、HUANGE、NIUZHI、QUANZHI、ZHAIXIN、PENSHENGZHANGDIAOJIEJIDENGFANGFACUHUA。

4.2 保花保果

CAIYONGCHUNJIZHUIFEI (ZENGJIALIN、JIAFEIBILI) 、HUANGE、SHIYAODENGCUOSHIBAOGUO, BINGYUFANGLIEGUO、QIHUANG、RIZHUO、CAIQIANHEDONGJIDIWENDONGHAILUOGUO。

4.3 疏花疏果

巴登彩票开户HUAGUOLIANGGUODA, HUIDAOZHIYOUSHUYINGYANGSHENGZHANGBULIANG、GUOSHIPINZHICHA、GUOGEXIAO、SHUSHIXUERUO, BIXUSHUQU。KECAIYONGDONGCHUNXIUJIANJIANSHAOHUALIANG, 6—7YUEXIANBAOGUOHOUSHUQUJIXINGGUO、SHANGCANGUO、BINGCHONGGUO、GUOXIAOGUODENG。ANYEGUOBIWANSHUZAGAN30∶1、WANSHUCHENGLEI50∶1、WANSHUYOULEI250∶1XUANLIUGUOSHI。

4.4 果实套袋或覆膜

巴登彩票开户10YUEZHIQIANBUYIDUIHONGSEPINZHONGTAODAI, YIMIANJIANGDIKERONGXINGGUXINGWUJIYINGXIANGZHESE, DANKEDUIWANSHUYOULEITAODAI。YIBANDAGUOXINGZAGAN、WANSHUCHENGLEIKEZAI11YUEZHONGXUNZHI12YUEZHONGXUNTAODAI, YIWAIHUANG (HONG) NEIHEIZHIDAIWEIHAO (BAISEDANCENGZHIDAIXIAOGUOLVECHA) , BUYIYONGZIZHIHANYOUMOZHIZUOTAODAIZHI。TAODAIQIANPEN1CISHACHONG、SHAJUNJIJIAYINGYANGYE, BUYAOJIANGYEPIANTAORUDAINEI, KELIANDAIZHIDAICAISHOU。

4.5 防止果皮返青

CHUNJI3—4YUEHOU, WANSHUCHENGLEI (XUECHENG、QICHENG、XIACHENG) GUOSHIWEICHONGFENCHENGSHU, GUOPIHECHENGSHENGZHANGSUHEYELVSUNENGLIZENGQIANG, WENDUHUISHENG, YEHUANGSU、HULUOBUSUHUOHUASEGANFENJIEJIAKUAI, SHIGUOPIFANQING。KECAIQUYIXIACUOSHIJIEJUE:HELIQINGJIAN, BAOCHISHUGUANJIAOHOUYEMUCENG;GUOSHITAODAI、XIANGYANGMIANGUOTIEBAIZHI;CAIGUOQIANHOUXUANZEHESHIDEZHIWUSHENGZHANGDIAOJIEJIRUERBENTONG、N, N-YIJIXINAN、YIXILIDENGJIANHUANGUOPIFANQING, ZHUYIYINGXIANJINXINGSHIYAN, NONGDUBUYIGUODA。

5 病虫害防治

巴登彩票开户WANSHUGANJUZHONGYAOBINGCHONGHAIZHUYAOYOUCHUANGJIABING、TANJUBING、SHUZHIBING (LIUJIAOBING、SHAPIBING、HESEDIFUBING) 、JIAOFUBING、YANMEIBING、GENJIEXIANCHONGBING、KUIYANGBING、HONGZHIZHU、HUANGZHIZHU、TIANNIUFEN、FENSHI、YACHONG、JUANYEE、QIANYEE、DASHIYING、FENGDIE、YEJIA、HUIXIANGJIA、HUALEIQU、JINGUIZI、WONIU、YECHANDENG, YAOCAIYONGZHIWUJIANYI、NONGYEFANGZHI、WULIFANGZHI、SHENGWUFANGZHI、HUAXUEFANGZHIDENGFANGFAJINXINGZONGHEFANGKONG, QUEBAOWANSHUGANJUZAOJIE、YOUZHI、FENGCHAN。

相关标签:柑橘苗批发

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