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柑橘冻害及综合防冻与冻后护理 (上)

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柑橘冻害及综合防冻与冻后护理 (上)

发布日期:2019-12-17 作者: 点击:

巴登彩票开户SUIZHEQUANQIUQIHOUBIANNUAN, YOUXIERENRENWEIGANJUDONGHAIBUHUIFASHENGHUONANYICHENGZAI, ZHEIZHONGRENSHIBUDUI, ERQIEDUISHENGCHANGUANLIBULI。ZHENGSHIYOUYUQIHOUBIANNUAN, ELIEHUOJIDUANTIANQICHUXIANGENGJIAPINFAN, JINJINIANCHUXIANDEDAFANWEIGANJUDONGHAIBIRENHESHIQIDOUYANZHONG, ZAOCHENGDESUNSHIMIANGUANGQIEJUDA, BUSHAODIFANGYINDADONGDAOZHICHENGPIANGANJUSHUKUSIZHONGZAI。2016NIANYUANYUEJIANGXIDENGDUOGENANFANGSHENG、SHIZAICIFASHENGBUTONGCHENGDUDEDONGHAI, DALIANGGANJUYUANSHOUDONG, YINQIKUZHIHEYANZHONGLUOYE, YIXIESHOUHAIZHONGDEGANJUYUANSHENZHIJUESHOU。DUIYUGANJUDONGHAI, RUFASHENGQIANHESHOUDONGHOUNENGJIJICAIQUYINGDUICUOSHI, JIKEDADAJIANQINGHUODUJUEDONGHAIDEFASHENG, JIANGSUNSHIJIANGDAOZUIDI。

一、冻害的成因

1. 气温

QIWENCHAOGUOGANJUNENGRENSHOUDELINJIEDIWEN, SHIDONGHAIFASHENGDEZUIZHUYAOYINSU。WENGANYU-7~-8℃DIWEN, DANGNIANSHENGDABUFENZHISHAOHUIDONGSI, TEBIESHIWANQIUSHAOHUIQUANBUSHOUDONGKUSI, 90%DEYEPIANYINDONGERTUOLUO。DANGQIWENDIYU-12℃SHI, WENGANJIAJIEBUWEIYISHANGDEGANZHIDABUFENHUIDONGSI。12YUEZHIYINIAN1YUEPINGJUNQIWENDIYU3℃, ZUIDIQIWENJIANGDAO-7~-9℃, WENGANDENGJIAOKANGHANDEPINZHONGHUIFASHENGQINGDUHUOZHONGDUDEDONGHAI;RUOQIWENJIANGZHI-10~-11℃, HUIFASHENGZHONGDUHUOZHONGDUDONGHAI。HUASHENGDUNQICHENGYU-7℃DIWEN, XINSHAOHEYEPIANHUIDONGKUSIWANG;QIWENJIANGDAO-9~-11℃SHI, ZHENGZHUZHIHUIDONGSI。ZAITONGYIGUOYUANHETONGDENGFEISHUIGUANLIQINGKUANGXIA, QIWENYUEDIHECHIXUSHIJIANYUEZHANG, GANJUSHOUDONGJIUYUEYANZHONG。DUANSHIJIANDELINJIEDIWEN, GANJUDADUONENGRENSHOU, BUHUIFASHENGDONGHAI, DANSHIRUGUODIWENCHIXUSHIJIANZHANG, QIWENJISHIBUHENDI, GANJUYEHUICHUXIANJIAOZHONGDEDONGHAI。-5.6℃DIWENCHIXU4XIAOSHI, WENGANYEPIANSHOUDONG5%;CIDIWENCHIXU8~9XIAOSHI, QI50%DEYEPIANSHOUDONG。

2. 降雪等

JIANGXUEHEJIXUEHUIJIAZHONGGANJUDEDONGHAI。JIXUENENGFANSHE80%~90%DETAIYANGGUANG, ZHIXUEMIANWENDUJIANGDI, YIZHIXUEHOUQINGTIANQIWENDESHENGGAO, JIAJUYEJIANJIANGWENHEDONGHAIDEFASHENG。XUERONGHUAHUIXISHOUDALIANGDERELIANG, JIAZHONGDONGHAIDEWEIHAI。DONGJIGANJUSHUSHANGCHANGHUICHUXIANWUSONG, RUWUSONGCHIXUFASHENGDUOTIAN, JISHIQIWENDABUDAOZHISHIGANJUDONGHAICHANSHENGDEWENDU, YIHUICHUXIANJIAOYANZHONGDEDONGHAI。XIA、QIUJIRUGUOGANHANQUESHUISHIJIANZHANG, GANJUSHENGZHANGHUISHOUDAODADEYINGXIANG, SHUSHIXIAJIANG, CHUXIANDALIANGLUOYEHELUOGUO, ZHEIZHONGSHUDONGJIZAIYUJIAODADEXUEHELENGDONG, JIURONGYIFASHENGDONGHAIHUOBEIDONGSI。DONGJIGANJUYUANGANHANJIADIWEN, HUICHANSHENGGANDONG, JIAZHONGDONGHAI。YIJISHUIHUOPAISHUIBULIANGDEGANJUYUAN, FASHENGDONGHAIWANGWANGDUOERZHONG。DIWENDONGHAILAILINQIANDEYIDUANSHIJIANCHUXIANJIAORUODEFENG, KESHIZHIZHUZHENGFASHAOLIANGSHUIFEN, CONGERTIGAOXIBAORONGYENONGDU, ZENGQIANGGANJUDEKANGHANDONGNENGLI。BUGUODONGJIDIWENSHIGUADAFENG, ZEHUIJIASUZHIZHUSHUIFENZHENGFA, KUAISUJIANGDIQIWENHETUWEN, YINQIGENGYANZHONGDEDONGHAI。SHENDONGJIJIERUCHUXIANJITIANQIWENKUAISUHUISHENG, ZEHUIYANZHONGXUERUOGANJUSHUDEKANGDONGNENGLI。DONGJIZUIDIQIWENDUOCHUXIANZAICHUQINGTIANDECIRIZAOCHEN, SHOUDONGDEGANJUSHUTAIYANGZHAOSHEHOUHUIKUAISUSHENGWEN, YUCIJULIEWENDUBIANHUA, HUIJIASUZHIHEYEXIBAODETUOSHUISIWANG。DONGJIZHANGSHIJIANDEYINYUHEDIWEN, HUIMANMANXUERUOGANJUDEKANGDONGXINGNENG, JIAZHONGDONGHAIDEFASHENG。

大雅柑橘幼苗

3. 品种

ANZHAONAIDONGNENGLIYOUQIANGDAORUO, BUTONGZHONGLEIGANJUDEPAIXUYICISHIZHIQIAO、YICHANGCHENG、ZHICHENG、JINGAN、WENZHOUMIGAN、SUANCHENG、TIANCHENG、YOU、PUTAOYOU、NINGMENGDENG。JINGANZHONG, JINDANZUIKANGHANDONG, ZHANGSHOUJINGANNAIHANDONGLIJIAOCHA。KUANPIGANJUZHONG, BENDIZAO、ZAOGAN、ZHUHONGJUHEWENZHOUMIJUDENGKANGHANDONGLIJIAOQIANG, OUGANDENGNAIHANDONGLIYIBAN, JIAOGANKANGHANDONGLIZUIRUO。WENZHOUMIGANZHONG, WEIZHANG、GONGCHUAN、XINGJINDENGKANGHANDONGLIZUIQIANG, TEZAOSHUDEGAOLINDENGZUIBUNAIHANDONG, QINGJIANGDENGKANGHANDONGLIYIBAN;GONGCHUAN、GUIJINGDENGNAIHANDONGXINGBURUWEIZHANGDENG, DANDONGHOUMENGYAZAOERQIANG, HUIFUSHUGUANKUAI。QICHENGHEJINCHENGDENGJIAONAIHANDONG, XIANGSHUICHENGHEXINHUICHENGDENGKANGHANDONGLIZUICHA, BINGTANGCHENGHEXIACHENGDENGNAIHANDONGLIYIBAN。SHATIANYOUHEYUHUANYOUKANGHANDONGLIJIAOQIANG。SUANCHENGKANGHANDONGLIDUOSHUJIAOQIANG。GENXISHENERGUANG, ZHISHAOCHONGSHI, YENONGLVFEIHOU、JIAOZHICENGJIAOHOU, QIUSHAOTEBIESHIWANQIUSHAOMENGFASHAO, ZIJIANJIAOZAODEGANJULEI, KANGHANDONGLIJIAOQIANG;FANZHIKANGHANDONGLICHA。ZHUJUDENGYUEDONGXINGQIANGDEGANJU, KANGHANDONGLIJIAOQIANG。WENDANYOUHEANJIANGXIANGYOUDENGYUEDONGXINGCHA, YISHOUDONGHAI。ZHENMUZHONG, ZHIZHENKANGHANDONGXINGZUIQIANG, ZHICHENGCIZHI, XINGSHANSUANCHENGHESANHUSUANCHENGDENGNAIHANDONGLIZUICHA。NAIHANDONGLIQIANGDEZHENMUDUOKEZENGQIANGJIESUIDEKANGHANDONGLI。ZHONGNIAN、CHENGNIANDEGANJUSHUBIYOUNIAN、LAONIANGANJUSHUKANGHANDONGLIQIANG。SHUSHIQIANGJIAN、ZHITIAOCUZHUANGCHONGSHI、SHIYONGYOUJIFEIJIAODUO、BINGCHONGHAISHAOHEJIEGUOLIANGSHIZHONGDESHU, NAIHANDONGLIJIAOQIANG;FANZHINAIHANDONGLIJIAOCHA。GANJUSHUDEZHUGAN、ZHUZHIHELAOZHINAIHANDONGLIZUIQIANG, QICISHICHENGSHUDEZHITIAOHEYEPIAN, HUALEI、KAIFANGDEHUA、GUOSHIHEGENXIZUIYISHOUDONG。XIACHENGYUEDONGGUO-3℃JIUHUISHOUDONGTUOLUO, HUALEIHEYOUGUO-1℃30FENZHONGHUISHOUDONGERTUOLUO。WENGAN-4~-5℃YEPIANHUIFASHENGDONGHAI, CHANSHENGSHUIJINZHUANGANLVSEDONGBAN;QIWENJIANGZHI-5~-6℃SHI, DONGBANZENGDUOBINGKUODA, YEYUANKAISHIXIANGSHANGJUAN;QIWENJIANGZHI-6~-8℃SHI, 35%~40%DEZHIYEHUISHOUDONG;QIWENJIANGZHI-9~-11℃SHI, 60%~70%DEZHIYESHOUDONG;WENDUJIANGDAO-12℃SHI, SUOYOUZHIYEHUISHOUYANZHONGSHOUDONG, 100%DEYEPIANHUIYINDONGERTUOLUO。BUCHONGSHIHEJIEGUOGUODUODENGDEGANJUZHISHAOYISHOUDONGHAI, CHONGSHIHEJIEGUOSHIZHONGDECHENGSHUZHISHAOJIAONAIHANDONG。-7~-8℃SHI, WENZHOUMIGANDANGNIANSHENGQIUSHAOJUEDABUFENHUIDONGSI;-7℃SHI, HUASHENGDUNQICHENGDANGNIANSHENGQIUSHAOHUIDONGSI。

二、冻害的预防

1. 选适地栽培

巴登彩票开户JIANGHE、HUBOHESHUIKUDENGSHUIYUSIZHOUXIAOQIHOUHUANJINGHAO, DONGHAIFASHENGSHAOERQING, SHIHEZAIPEIGANJU, WOGUOBUSHAOYOUMINGDECHANQURUZHANGJIANGSANXIAGANJUZAIPEIDAIDENGJIUXUANJIANZAIZHEIXIEDIFANG;ZUOBEICHAONANDEQIULINGHUANPODICHUZAINIWENCENG (NIWENCENGDEQIWENYIBANBIPOJIAOGAO4~8℃) , DONGHAIFASHENGSHAOERQING, SHIHEGANJUDEZAIPEI。-9℃CHUXIANPINLVDIYU10%DEDIFANG, SHIHEGANJUZAIPEI;PINLVWEI10%~20%DEDIFANG, JIAOSHIHEZAIPEIGANJU;PINLVCHAOGUO20%DEDIFANG, BUYAOZAIPEIGANJU。SHANGU、PENDIHEDIWADIDENGYICHENJILENGKONGQI, RUZAIPEIGANJU, DONGHAIFASHENGDUOERZHONG;SHANDING、SHANJIAODENGYIFASHENGDONGHAI, BUYAOZAIPEIGANJU;FENGKOU、FENGDAOHESHANBEIMIANDENGCHU, DONGHAIDUOFA, BUYINGXUANWEIGANJUZAIPEIDI;SHANGAOPODOUDEDIFANGBUYAOZAIPEIGANJU。

2. 选栽抗冻性强的品种和砧木

BEIYUANGANJUZAIPEIDAI, YIXUANZAIKANGHANDONGNENGLIJIAOQIANG、GAOCHAN、PINZHIYOU、CHENGSHUJIAOZAODENGDEWENZHOUMIJU, RUWEIZHANG、XINGJIN、GONGCHUANDENG, HAIKEGENJUGEDIDEQIHOUHETURANGDENGTIAOJIAN, XUANZAIZHUHONGJU、JINJUHEHUANGPIDENG。GUANGDONGDEZHONGBEIBUHEJIANGXIDENANBUDENGDIFANG, KEXUANZAIJIAONAIHANDONGYOUGAOCHANZHIYOUDEHUASHENGDUNQICHENGHEJINCHENGDENG。KANGHANXINGZHENMUNENGTIGAOGANJUDEKANGHANDONGNENGLI, YONGZHIQIAO、ZHICHENGHUOXIANGCHENGDENGZHENMUJIAJIEWENCHUANMIGAN、TIANCHENGDENG, NAIHANDONGLIHUIDEDAOJIAODATIGAO。QIANCHAFANZHIDEZHENMU, JIAJIEGANJUKANGHANDONGNENGLIBISHISHENGZHENMUCHA, BUKEXUANYONG。GAOZHENHUOGAOZHENHUANTOUJIAJIEZAIPEIGANJU, KEJIANQINGHANDONGDEWEIHAI, YAOJINLIANGCAIYONG。

3. 合理建园

柑橘栽培过密或过稀都不利于抗寒冻, 因此应合理密植。要积极推广定植营养钵苗和大苗, 以利提高耐寒冻性。丘陵山地栽培温州蜜柑, 以亩栽100~150株为适, 较肥沃的平地以亩栽80~100株为好。绝大多数柑橘苗的嫁接部位离地高只有5~15厘米, 嫁接部位易受冻害。柑橘接穗高接在40厘米以上的耐寒冻砧木上, 可利用砧木的抗冻性, 让砧木立于果园的低温层, 抗寒冻力相对弱的嫁接部位避开低温层, 起到大大减少冻害的作用。柑橘园四周合理构建防护林, 可明显降低风速和大风对柑橘的直接危害, 较好地调节果园小气候, 冬季能提高地表温度1~2℃, 对减少冻害的发生有较好作用。柑橘园外围可据情交错栽2~3排防护林。防护林应选栽速生、高大、枝叶多、有一定经济价值的树种, 最好是栽冬季不落叶的常绿树种, 如杉树、湿地松、柏树、杨树、女贞和木麻黄等。

4. 抓好果园管理

巴登彩票开户(1) TURANGGUANLI。ZAIPEIZAITUCENGSHENHOUFEIWODISHANGDEGANJU, KANGHANDONGXINGBIZAIPEIZAIBOSHOUDISHANGDEQIANG。HONGRANGQIULINGDENGBOSHOUDISHANGZAIPEIDEGANJU, MEINIANHUOMEIGEYINIANYINGZAISHUGUANDISHUIXIANCHUKAIGOUMAIFEIGAITU, ZAISHUDEYICEKAIYIBANYUANHUOYUANXINGDEGOU, GOUSHEN70~80LIMI、KUAN80~100LIMI, MEIZHUSHUFENCENGMAIRUFUSHUJIUFEI50QIANKE, TUZAFEIHEZACAO、SHUZHIDENG50QIANKE, SHENGSHIHUI1QIANKE, GUOLINSUANGAI1~1.5QIANKE。SHENFANGAITUCHUNJIKEZAI3~4YUEJINXING, DONGJIYIZAI10~11YUEWEIHAO。GANJUYUANDESHENFANGAITUBUKEYINIANYICIXINGWANCHENG, YIFEN2~3NIANWANCHENG, YIHOUSHIQINGKUANGGE2~3NIANZAIXINGXIACISHENFANGAITU。

巴登彩票开户(2) SHUIFEIGUANLI。GANJUXITUCENGSHENHOUSHIRUNDETURANG, PATURANGGUOSHI、JISHUI、DIXIASHUIWEIGAOYU1MIHEGANHAN。TURANGGUOSHI、DIXIASHUIWEIGAOHUOJISHUIDENG, TURANGTONGTOUXINGEHUA, QINGZEYINGXIANGSHUTISHENGZHANG, YANZHONGSHIGENXIRANBINGFULAN, KANGHANDONGNENGLIXIAJIANG。YINCI, DIXIASHUIWEIGAO、DIWAYIJISHUI、NANYIPAICHUJISHUIHEYISHOUSHUIYANDEDIFANG, ZUIHAOBUYAOZAIPEIGANJU。GANJUYUANYAOSHIQIANKAIHAOGOUGOUXIANGTONGDEWEIGOU、YAOGOUHEQIGOU, JIANGYUSHIBUSHIDAOYUANZHONGXUNSHI, FAXIANDUGOUHEJISHUI, YINGJISHISHUGOUPAISHUI。GANJUSHOULAOHOU, YAOJISHIPAICHUJISHUI, JINKUAIBAKAISHUPANTURANG, LUCHUBUFENGENXI, JIAKUAISHUIFENZHENGFA, 3~5TIANHOUZAIGAITU, KEFANGZHIHUOJIANSHAOLANGENDEFASHENG。GANJUSHOUHANHAI, KANGHANDONGNENGLIHUIXIAJIANG, ZAIDIBIAOFUGAIDAOCAOHUODIMODENG, YOUJIAOHAODEKANGHANZUOYONG。YOUTIAOJIANDEGANJUYUANPEITAOJIANSHEPENGUANHUODIGUANSHESHI, JIKEJIESHUIYOUNENGGAOXIAOFANGHAN。HANSHIGANJUYUANYAOMEIGE7~10TIANGOUGUANHUOXUEGUANSHUI1CI, MEICIMEIZHUCHENGNIANSHUGUANSHUI50QIANKEZUOYOU, HOUFUTUHUOGAICAODENG。DONGQIANDUIGANJUYUANGUAN1CIDASHUI, YOUJIANQINGDONGHAIZHIXIAOGUO。

巴登彩票开户SHIYONGJIUFEIDENGYOUJIFEI, BUJINNENGZENGJIATURANGYOUJIZHIHEGAILIANGTURANG, ERQIENENGTIZHIZENGCHANHETIGAOGANJUDEKANGHANDONGLI。DANFEISHIYONGGUODUO, YIYINQIGANJUSHENGZHANGGUOWANG, JIANGDINAIHANDONGNENGLI, YINCIDAN、LIN、JIAFEIYINGANKEXUEBILISHIYONG, WENZHOUMIGANSANZHONGYUANSUFEILIAOSHIYISHIYONGBILIWEI10∶7∶8。SHILIANGZENGSHILIN、JIAFEI, KETIGAOGANJUDEKANGHANDONGLI。GANJURUDONGQIAN20~30TIANPENSA1~2CI0.2%~0.3%LINSUANERQINGJIARONGYE, KEMINGXIANZENGQIANGQIKANGHANDONGXING。QUEFAWEILIANGYUANSUDEGANJUSHU, NAIHANDONGLIHUIXIAJIANG, BUSHAOCHENGNIANYUANYOUBUTONGCHENGDUWEILIANGYUANSUQUEFA, YAOZHONGSHIDUIQIJINXINGBUCHONG。QUETIEDEGANJUSHU, KEDUIGENBUJIAOSHI6%LIUSUANYATIERONGYE;QUEXINDE, KEYEMIANPENSA0.2%LIUSUANXINRONGYE;QUEPENGDE, KEYEMIANPENSA0.1%~0.2%PENGSHARONGYE;QUEMUDE, KEYEMIANPENSA0.01%~0.03%MUSUANANRONGYE;QUEGAIDE, MEIMUKEGOUSHIHUOXUESHISHUSHIHUI60~70QIANKE。GANJUSHUZUOGUOGUODUOSHI, HUIXIAOHAOGUODUOYINGYANG, XUERUOSHUSHIBINGJIANGDIKANGHANDONGNENGLI;KONGZHIWANQIUSHAONENGZENGJIASHUTIYINGYANGWUZHIDEJILEI, TIGAONAIHANDONGLI。DUIZHANGSHIWANGHESHUIFEITIAOJIANHAODEGANJUSHU, KEYU10YUESHANGZHONGXUNYEMIANPENSA1CI50%AIZHUANGSUSHUIJI1500BEIYE, YOUHAODEKONGSHAOZUOYONG。 (WEIWANDAIXU)

相关标签:柑橘苗价格

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